Over a quarter century ago, the kinetic chain was first studied in nationally ranked tennis players.25Players increase the maximum linear velocity from the knee to the racquet.25The preparation phase (stages 1-4) results in the storing of potential energy that can be utilized as kinetic energy during the acceleration phase.
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The Preparation Phase is made up of start, release, loading and cocking. The main goal of this phase is to store potential energy that can be utilized as kinetic energy during the acceleration phase. The biggest differences occur in the loading stage, where some players use the foot-up technique and others prefer the foot-back technique.
PHASES AND STAGES OF THE TENNIS SERVE PREPARATION PHASE—START STAGE (STAGE 1) The start of a player's serve is a rather individual aspect of the service motion and does not directly influence the force production due to no ground reaction forces (GRFs) above those of standing at this point in the motion . Many players start using varying technique, feet positions, and timing.
Step 1: The Stance. A proper tennis serve stance is when your feet are positioned so that the front foot is pointing towards the right net post (for right-handers) and the back foot is parallel to the baseline. Basic serve stance gives you balance in all directions.
While it may seem insignificant, this is one of the most important phases to prep the body for the success of the tennis serve. Stage 3- Loading: This phase is focused on building power through the legs. There are two ways athletes take on this phase.... One way is the "foot up" approach which allows greater vertical forces. For those athletes that prefer the "foot up" approach during the loading phase, they require significantly more eccentric control for the landing.
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The serve begins with the preparation phase, this phase is mainly just the players mental state in which they plan and decide how they will execute the serve. The serve continues onto the windup phase, then the power production phase and finishes with the follow through phase.
During this phase the athlete determines the location and type of serve they are going to hit. This will be based on the positioning of the opposition player, their knowledge of the player’s ability and their confidence to effectively complete the serve. The centre of gravity has vital importance in the preparation phase of the tennis serve. Blazevich (2012) describes the centre of gravity as being “the point in which all particles of the body are evenly distributed” (Blazevich, 2012).
In these exercises, as with the serve, the sequential recruitment of the gastrocnemius, soleus, quadriceps, and gluteals initially acts eccentrically (preparation phase), then concentrically (acceleration phase), and finally eccentrically again (follow-through/landing phase).
Volley/service return: The split step, an integral part of preparation for a volley, service return, or groundstroke, places the quadriceps muscle (extensor at the knee joint) on stretch, permitting storage and subsequent release of energy to enhance quick movement in preparation for the subsequent stroke.